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Configure Persistent Memory Module (PMem)

Follow the instructions in this section to configure PMems and DRAM DIMMs.

PMem capacity could act as accessible persistent memory for applications or volatile system memory. Based on the approximate percentage of PMem capacity invested in volatile system memory, the following three operating modes are available for choice:

  • App Direct Mode (0% of PMem capacity acts as system memory):

    In this mode, PMems act as independent and persistent memory resources directly accessible by specific applications, and DRAM DIMMs act as system memory.

    The total displayed volatile system memory in this mode is the sum of DRAM DIMM capacity.

    Note
    • In App Direct Mode, the DRAM DIMMs that are installed can be configured to mirror mode.

    • When only one PMem is installed for each processor, only not-interleaved App Direct Mode is supported.

  • Mixed Memory Mode (1-99% of PMem capacity acts as system memory):

    In this mode, some percentage of PMem capacity is directly accessible to specific applications (App Direct), while the rest serves as system memory. The App Direct part of PMem is displayed as persistent memory, while the rest of PMem capacity is displayed as system memory. DRAM DIMMs act as cache in this mode.

    The total displayed volatile system memory in this mode is the PMem capacity that is invested in volatile system memory.

  • Memory Mode (100% of PMem capacity acts as system memory):

    In this mode, PMems act as volatile system memory, while DRAM DIMMs act as cache.

    The total displayed volatile system memory in this mode is the sum of PMem capacity.

PMem Management options

PMems can be managed with the following tools:
  • Lenovo XClarity Provisioning Manager (LXPM)

    To open LXPM, power on the system and press the key specified in the on-screen instructions as soon as the logo screen appears.* If a password has been set, enter the password to unlock LXPM.

    Go to UEFI Setup > System Settings > Intel Optane PMems to configure and manage PMems.

    For more details, see the UEFI Setup section in the Lenovo XClarity Provisioning Manager documentation version compatible with your server at Lenovo XClarity Provisioning Manager portal page.

    Note
    If the text-based interface of Setup Utility opens instead of Lenovo XClarity Provisioning Manager, go to System Settings > <F1> Start Control and select Tool Suite. Then, reboot the system and press the key specified in the on-screen instructions as soon as the logo screen appears to open Lenovo XClarity Provisioning Manager.*
  • Setup Utility

    To enter Setup Utility:

    1. Power on the system and press the key specified in the on-screen instructions to open LXPM.*

    2. Go to UEFI Settings > System Settings, click on the pull-down menu on the upper right corner of the screen, and select Text Setup.

    3. Reboot the system, and press the key specified in the on-screen instructions as soon as the logo screen appears.*

    Go to System Configuration and Boot Management > System Settings > Intel Optane PMems to configure and manage PMems.

  • Lenovo XClarity Essentials OneCLI

    Some management options are available in commands that are executed in the path of Lenovo XClarity Essentials OneCLI in the operating system. See Downloading and using XClarity Essentials OneCLI to learn how to download and use Lenovo XClarity Essentials OneCLI.

Note
*For more information, see the Startup section in the LXPM documentation compatible with your server at Lenovo XClarity Provisioning Manager portal page.
Following are the available management options:
  • Intel Optane PMem details

    Select this option to view the following details concerning each of the the installed PMems:

    • Firmware version

    • Configuration status

    • Raw capacity

    • Memory capacity

    • App Direct capacity

    • Unconfigured capacity

    • Inaccessible capacity

    • Reserved capacity

    • Percentage remaining

    • Security state

    Alternatively, view PMem details with the following command in OneCLI:

    onecli.exe config show IntelOptanePMEM

    --imm USERID:PASSW0RD@10.104.195.86

    Note
    • USERID stands for XCC user ID.
    • PASSW0RD stands for XCC user password.
    • 10.104.195.86 stands for IP address.
  • Goals

    • Memory Mode [%]

      Select this option to define the percentage of PMem capacity that is invested in system memory, and hence decide the PMem mode:
      • 0%: App Direct Mode

      • 1-99%: Mixed Memory Mode

      • 100%: Memory Mode

      Go to Goals > Memory Mode [%], input the memory percentage, and reboot the system.
      Note
      • Before changing from one mode to another:

        1. Back up all the data and delete all the created namespaces. Go to Namespaces > View/Modify/Delete Namespaces to delete the created namespaces.

        2. Perform secure erase on all the installed PMems. Go to Security > Press to Secure Erase to perform secure erase.

      • Make sure the capacity of installed PMems and DRAM DIMMs meets system requirements for the new mode (see DC Persistent Memory Module (DCPMM) installation order).

      • After the system is rebooted and the input goal value is applied, the displayed value in System Configuration and Boot Management > Intel Optane PMems > Goals will go back to the following default selectable options:

        • Scope: [Platform]

        • Memory Mode [%]: 0

        • Persistent Memory Type: [App Direct]

        These values are selectable options for PMem settings, and do not represent the current PMem status.

      In addition, you can take advantage of a memory configurator, which is available at the following site: Lenovo Enterprise Solutions Configurator

      Alternatively, set PMem Goals with the following commands in OneCLI:
      1. Set create goal status.

        onecli.exe config set IntelOptanePMEM.CreateGoal Yes

        --imm USERID:PASSW0RD@10.104.195.86

      2. Define the PMem capacity that is invested in system volatile memory.

        onecli.exe config set IntelOptanePMEM.MemoryModePercentage 20

        --imm USERID:PASSW0RD@10.104.195.86

        Where 20 stands for the percentage of capacity that is invested in system volatile memory.

      3. Set the PMem mode.

        onecli.exe config set IntelOptanePMEM.PersistentMemoryType "App Direct"

        --imm USERID:PASSW0RD@10.104.195.86

        Where App Direct stands for the PMem mode.

    • Persistent Memory Type

      In App Direct Mode and Mixed Memory Mode, the PMems that are connected to the same processor are by default interleaved (displayed as App Direct), while memory banks are used in turns. To set them as not interleaved in the Setup Utility, go to Intel Optane PMems > Goals > Persistent Memory Type [(PMem mode)], select App Direct Not Interleaved and reboot the system.

      Note
      Setting PMem App Direct capacity to not interleaved will turn the displayed App Direct regions from one region per processor to one region per PMem.
  • Regions

    After the memory percentage is set and the system is rebooted, regions for the App Direct capacity will be generated automatically. Select this option to view the App Direct regions.

  • Namespaces

    App Direct capacity of PMems requires the following steps before it is truly available for applications.

    1. Namespaces must be created for region capacity allocation.

    2. Filesystem must be created and formatted for the namespaces in the operating system.

    Each App Direct region can be allocated into one namespace. Create namespaces in the following operating systems:

    • Windows: Use Pmem command.

    • Linux: Use ndctl command.

    • VMware: Reboot the system, and VMware will create namespaces automatically.

    After creating namespaces for App Direct capacity allocation, make sure to create and format filesystem in the operating system so that the App Direct capacity is accessible for applications.

  • Security

    • Enable Security

      Attention
      By default, PMem security is disabled. Before enabling security, make sure all the country or local legal requirements regarding data encryption and trade compliance are met. Violation could cause legal issues.
      PMems can be secured with passphrases. Two types of passphrase protection scope are available for PMem:
      • Platform: Choose this option to run security operation on all the installed PMem units at once. A platform passphrase is stored and automatically applied to unlock PMems before operating system starts running, but the passphrase still has to be disabled manually for secure erase.

        Alternatively, enable/disable platform level security with the following commands in OneCLI:
        • Enable security:
          1. Enable security.

            onecli.exe config set IntelOptanePMEM.SecurityOperation "Enable Security"

            --imm USERID:PASSW0RD@10.104.195.86

          2. Set the security passphrase.

            onecli.exe config set IntelOptanePMEM.SecurityPassphrase "123456"

            --imm USERID:PASSW0RD@10.104.195.86

            Where 123456 stands for the passphrase.

          3. Reboot the system.

        • Disable security:
          1. Disable security.

            onecli.exe config set IntelOptanePMEM.SecurityOperation "Disable Security"

            --imm USERID:PASSW0RD@10.104.195.86

          2. Enter passphrase.

            onecli.exe config set IntelOptanePMEM.SecurityPassphrase "123456"

            --imm USERID:PASSW0RD@10.104.195.86

          3. Reboot the system.

      • Single PMem: Choose this option to run security operation on one or more selected PMem units.
        Note
        • Single PMem passphrases are not stored in the system, and security of the locked units needs to be disabled before the units are available for access or secure erase.

        • Always make sure to keep records of the slot number of locked PMems and corresponding passphrases. In the case the passphrases are lost or forgotten, the stored data cannot be backed up or restored, but you can contact Lenovo service for administrative secure erase.

        • After three failed unlocking attempts, the corresponding PMems enter “exceeded” state with a system warning message, and the PMem unit can only be unlocked after the system is rebooted.

        To enable passphrase, go to Security > Press to Enable Security.
    • Secure Erase

      Note
      • Password is required to perform Secure Erase when security enabled.

      • Before executing secure erase, make sure ARS (Address Range Scrub) is done on all PMEMs or on the specific PMEMs selected. Otherwise, secure erase cannot be started on all PMEMs or the specific PMEM selected, and the following text message will pop out:

        The passphrase is incorrect for single or multiple or all Intel Optane PMEMs selected, or maybe there is namespace on the selected PMEMs. Secure erase operation is not done on all Intel Optane PMEMs selected.

      Secure erase cleanses all the data that is stored in the PMem unit, including encrypted data. This data deletion method is recommended before returning or disposing a malfunctioning unit, or changing PMem mode. To perform secure erase, go to Security > Press to Secure Erase.

      Alternatively, perform platform level secure erase with the following command in OneCLI:

      onecli.exe config set IntelOptanePMEM.SecurityOperation "Secure Erase Without Passphrase"

      --imm USERID:PASSW0RD@10.104.195.86

  • PMem Configuration

    PMem contains spared internal cells to stand in for the failed ones. When the spared cells are exhausted to 0%, there will be an error message, and it is advised to back up data, collect service log, and contact Lenovo support.

    There will also be a warning message when the percentage reaches 1% and a selectable percentage (10% by default). When this message appears, it is advised to back up data and run PMem diagnostics (see the Running diagnostics section in the Lenovo XClarity Provisioning Manager documentation version compatible with your server at Lenovo XClarity Provisioning Manager portal page). To adjust the selectable percentage that the warning message requires, go to Intel Optane PMems > PMem Configuration, and input the percentage.

    Alternatively, change the selectable percentage with the following command in OneCLI:

    onecli.exe config set IntelOptanePMEM.PercentageRemainingThresholds 20

    --imm USERID:PASSW0RD@10.104.195.86

    Where 20 is the selectable percentage.